Long haired rabbits are very sensitive to environmental temperature due to their underdeveloped sweat glands and dense fur on their body surface. According to the experiment, the optimal temperature for young rabbits is 30-35 ℃, for young rabbits it is 20-25 ℃, and for adult rabbits it is 15-20 ℃. When building a building, environmental temperature should be considered. Long haired rabbits have strong tolerance to low temperatures, and healthy rabbits can still survive under environmental conditions of -20~-39 ℃ without freezing to death. However, in order to maintain body temperature, more nutrients need to be consumed. If the required nutrients cannot be met, it will have a significant impact on hair production and weight gain. According to experiments, there is a significant difference in the environmental temperature requirements of long haired rabbits before and after wool harvesting. Before picking hair, due to the dense and long coat, there is less heat loss from the body; After hair harvesting, the body heat dissipation can increase by more than 30% due to the short surface hair. So, insulation work must be done well after picking hair in the cold season to prevent colds. However, after 4 weeks of picking hair, the ambient temperature can be maintained between 5 and 15 ℃ to promote the growth of rabbit hair; Increase rabbit hair production.
Long haired rabbits prefer dry environments, with the most suitable relative humidity ranging from 60% to 65%. Generally, it should not be lower than 55% or higher than 70%. High temperature and high humidity, as well as low temperature and high humidity, are harmful to long hair without any benefits. They are not conducive to heat dissipation in summer or winter temperature, and are also prone to infection with parasitic diseases both inside and outside the body. According to production practice, excessive air humidity often leads to damp cages, contaminating the fur, and affecting the quality of rabbit hair; It is conducive to the reproduction of bacteria and parasites, causing the spread of scabies and eczema. On the contrary, if the air in the rabbit house is too dry and the humidity is too low for a long time, it can also lead to rough fur and a decrease in the quality of rabbit fur; Causing dry and cracked respiratory mucosa, leading to bacterial and viral infections. Given the above situation, the humidity inside the rabbit shed should be kept as stable as possible. The feces and urine excreted by the long haired rabbit, the exhaled water vapor, and the water washed from the ground are the main reasons for the increase in humidity in the rabbit house. To reduce the humidity inside the house, it is recommended to strengthen ventilation or sprinkle quicklime, plant ash, etc. During rainy and humid seasons, it is recommended to rinse the house with water as much as possible.
improve air circulation
Ventilation is a good way to regulate the temperature and humidity of rabbit houses. Ventilation can also remove the dirty gas, dust and excessive moisture in the rabbit house, which can effectively reduce the incidence rate of respiratory diseases. The feces and urine that long hair does not emit, as well as the contaminated mat grass, can decompose and emit harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide under certain temperature conditions. Long haired rabbits are highly sensitive animals with lower tolerance to harmful gases than other animals. When exposed to high concentrations of harmful gases, they are highly susceptible to respiratory diseases, exacerbating the spread of pasteurellosis, infectious cold, and other diseases. Ventilation methods can generally be divided into two types: natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation. Small farms often use natural ventilation methods, which utilize air convection through doors and windows or adjust the exhaust and inlet holes on the roof. Large and medium-sized rabbit farms often use mechanical ventilation with suction or air supply, which is often used in hot summers and is an auxiliary form of natural ventilation. The suitable wind speed inside the shelter is 0.4 meters per second in summer and 0.1-0.2 meters per second in winter. It should be emphasized that the rabbit shed should be strictly guarded against the invasion of thieves' wind. Reducing the concentration of harmful gases in the rabbit shed can also be achieved by frequent cleaning, flushing, and strengthening ventilation to maintain fresh air in the shed.
Light plays an important regulatory role in the physiological functions of long haired rabbits. Appropriate lighting helps to enhance the metabolism of long haired rabbits, enhance appetite, and promote the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus; Insufficient light can lead to a decrease in libido and conception rate in long haired rabbits. In addition, light also has functions such as sterilization, keeping the rabbit house dry, and preventing diseases. Production practice has shown that male and female rabbits have different lighting requirements. Generally speaking, breeding mother rabbits require long light exposure, preferably 14 to 16 hours of light per day. This is manifested by a high conception rate and a large number of offspring, which can achieve the best reproductive effect. Under long light conditions, the quality of semen in male rabbits decreases, and the best effect is to light for 10-12 hours per day. At present, small rabbit farms generally use natural lighting, and the lighting area of the rabbit house doors and windows should account for about 15% of the ground, but should avoid direct sunlight from the rabbit; Large and medium-sized rabbit farms, especially intensive rabbit farms, often use artificial lighting or artificial supplementary lighting. Incandescent lighting is the preferred light source, with 3-4 watts per square meter of ground and a lamp height of generally 2-2.5 meters above the ground.
Noise is one of the important environmental factors. According to experiments, sudden noise can lead to serious consequences such as miscarriage in pregnant rabbits, refusal of lactation by lactating rabbits, and even cannibalism of young rabbits. There are three main sources of noise: firstly, external transmitted sounds; The second is the sound generated by the machinery and operations inside the building; The third is the sound of feeding, walking, and fighting generated by the long haired rabbit itself. If a rabbit encounters sudden noise, it will panic, jump and jump randomly, pedal and hiss, leading to loss of appetite and even death. In order to reduce noise, when building rabbit houses, it is necessary to stay away from high noise areas such as highways, railways, industrial and mining enterprises, and try to avoid external noise interference as much as possible; The breeding management operation should be light and stable, and try to keep the rabbit house quiet as much as possible.
The dust in the air mainly includes dry dust blown by the wind and a large amount of dust generated during breeding and management work, such as cleaning the ground, flipping grass mats, distributing hay and feed, etc. Dust has a direct impact on the health and hair quality of long haired rabbits. Dust falling on the surface of the rabbit body can mix with sebaceous gland secretions, rabbit hair, dander, etc., hindering normal skin metabolism and affecting the quality of rabbit hair; Dust inhalation into the body can also cause respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia and bronchitis; Dust can also adsorb moisture, toxic gases, and harmful microorganisms in the air, causing various allergic reactions and even infecting various infectious diseases. In order to reduce the dust content in the rabbit shed air, attention should be paid to the operating procedures of feeding management. It is best to change the powder feed to pellet feed to ensure good ventilation performance of the rabbit shed.
Greening plays an important role in regulating temperature and humidity, purifying air, preventing wind and sand, and beautifying the environment. Especially broad-leaved trees, which can provide shade in summer and prevent wind in winter, play an important role in improving the shelter microclimate. According to production practice, a well greened rabbit farm can cool down by 3-5 ℃ in summer and increase relative humidity by 20% to 30%. Planting grass can reduce the dust content in the air by about 5%. Therefore, protective forest belts should be planted around the rabbit farm as much as possible, and a large number of trees should be planted inside the farm. All open spaces should be planted with nuclear crops; Grass or green grassland.
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